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宠物可以治病?专家:结论为时尚早

虽然目前绝大多数医院都不允许动物入内,但英国皇家护理学院却认为狗狗等动物能够帮助患者康复,应该被允许进入医院。据英媒报道,该机构正在制定相关准则,指导医疗机构安全有效地运用动物疗法,从而使所有患者受益。然而,有学者对该机构的做法表示质疑,认为目前的研究尚不能证明动物对病患的康复起到了作用。

 

宠物可以治病?专家:结论为时尚早

There is plenty of anecdotal evidence that animals reduce emotional stress for patients (file)

 

There is no evidence that so-called 'pet-therapy' works, according to a Yale University academic.
耶鲁大学的一项研究称,没有证据表明所谓的“宠物疗法”是行之有效的。

Practices, such as taking dogs on hospital wards, has shown a 'small-to-medium' reduction in patients' distress, found doctoral student Molly Crossman in her review of the medical literature.
博士在读生茉莉•科罗斯曼在其医学文献综述中指出,研究显示,将狗狗带到医院病房的做法对于减轻病患痛苦有“轻微至中度”的效果。

However, she says it's unclear whether the animals deserve the credit as a high number of studies did not control for other possible factors.
但她认为,目前尚不确定这些动物是否真的起到了作用,因为许多研究都没有控制其他的可能因素。

Her comments come as hospitals have been urged to let more dogs and other animals on to wards and even into operating theatres to help patients.
科罗斯曼发表此番言论是因为,人们敦促医院让更多狗狗和其他动物进入病房甚至手术室帮助病人。

The Royal College of Nursing made the appeal after collecting scores of anecdotal evidence of therapy animals helping recovery.
英国皇家护理学院在发出此项呼吁之前,收集了大量动物治疗师帮助病人康复的传闻证据。

Some young patients found having trained dogs accompany them to the anaesthetic room reduced their anxiety before and after surgery, they discovered.
他们发现,在受过训练的狗狗陪伴下进入麻醉室,能够减轻一些年轻患者的术前和术后焦虑感。

In a recent RCN survey of 750 nursing staff, 82 percent said pets encouraged patients to be more physically active and 60 percent believed animals improved physical recovery.
皇家护理学院近日对750名护理人员进行了调查,结果82%的人认为宠物促使病患更加积极活动,60%的人认为它们有助于病患的身体恢复。

But many nurses reported that animals were banned from where they worked due to health and safety concerns.
但许多护士称,出于健康和安全方面的原因,医院禁止宠物出入。

“没有明确结论”

Crossman, writing in the Journal of Clinical Psychology, notes that the idea that animals are beneficial for human mental health first emerged in the 17th century, when a Quaker-run retreat in England encouraged mentally ill patients to interact with animals on its grounds.
科罗斯曼在《临床心理学杂志》发表文章称,动物对人类心理健康有益的观点诞生于17世纪,英国有一家贵格会教徒管理的疗养院基于这个原因鼓励精神病患者和动物互动。

The father of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud believed that dogs had a 'special sense' that allowed them to judge a person's character accurately. His favorite chow chow, Jo-Fi, attended all of his therapy sessions.
精神分析学之父西格蒙德•弗洛伊德认为狗拥有一种“特殊的感官”,它们能够准确判断一个人的性格。弗洛伊德最喜欢的中国松狮犬Jo-Fi参与了他的所有治疗环节。

Nowadays, the therapeutic effects of animals have become widely accepted. San Francisco airport now has a pig to calm nervous travelers.
如今,动物具有治疗功效的观点已经被广泛接受。旧金山机场现在有一头小猪专门安抚紧张的旅客。

More people are bringing 'emotional support animals' on board planes – including turkeys, monkeys and other unusual pets – sparking a debate over whether this should be allowed.
越来越多的人将“提供情感支持的动物”带上飞机,比如火鸡、猴子以及其他不常见的宠物,这种行为到底该不该允许也产生了争议。

But Crossman said we cannot yet draw clear conclusions on their benefits.
但科罗斯曼称,对于动物的益处,我们目前还不能得出明确结论。

She said: 'The limited body of literature suggests that human–animal interaction produces small-to-medium reductions in distress; however, it remains unclear whether those reductions are because of the animals as opposed to other aspects of the interventions.
她说:“有限的文献资料表明,人和动物之间的互动在减轻病痛方面能够起到轻度至中度的作用,但是目前还不清楚,这些效果是因为动物,还是受到了其他因素的影响。”

'Despite the lack of research progress, the benefits are routinely overstated.'
“尽管缺乏研究进展,但动物对人类的帮助通常是被夸大的。”

宠物是“天然抗抑郁剂”

Keeping a pet is said to be a 'natural antidepressant', as cuddling a furry friend triggers release of the happy hormones serotonin, prolactin and oxytocin.
都说养宠物是一种“天然抗抑郁剂”,拥抱毛茸茸的动物朋友能够刺激人体分泌血清素、催乳素和催产素等“快乐荷尔蒙”。

Many elderly people who suffer from dementia or Alzheimer's experience confusion and agitation in the evening, known as 'sundown syndrome'.
许多老年痴呆患者在夜间会感到精神错乱、烦躁不安,这也被称为“日落综合征”。

Studies carried out at residential nursing homes in the US found that the presence of a dog distracted the patient from the aggressive and agitated behaviour, calmed them, reduced perception of loneliness and evoked feelings of happiness.
一项针对美国养老院的研究发现,狗狗的存在会缓解病人的好斗和暴躁行为,安抚病人情绪,减少孤独感,激发幸福感。

Furthermore, an American study found that children of military staff who were close to a family pet coped better with the emotional stress of having a parent deployed overseas and other difficulties.
此外,一项美国研究还发现,与家庭宠物亲近的军人子女,能够更好地应对父母被派遣到海外的情感压力以及其他困难。

But it seems many hospital trusts are scared of health and safety ramifications.
但是,很多医院信托机构都担心健康和安全隐患。

Concerns that furry companions spread infections and other 'myths around the dangers' of allowing animals on wards are obstacles, according to Amanda Cheesley of the RNC.
皇家护理学院的阿曼达-切斯利称,允许动物进入医院的阻力包括担心动物会传播传染病,以及其他“未知的危险”。

Yet a recent study has found that being exposed to pets from a young age lowers the risk of obesity and results in fewer allergies.
然而,最近一项研究发现,从小就接触宠物的人患肥胖症的风险较低,且过敏的情况较少。

Dogs in particular expose children to dirt and bacteria early in life, which creates early immunity, found scientists at the University of Alberta, in Canada.
加拿大艾伯塔大学的科学家发现,狗狗尤其会让孩子在小时候接触到灰尘和细菌,从而让他们产生早期免疫力。


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